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經濟學人: 眼前的黑不是黑(4)

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“Trying desperately to free art from the dead weight of the real world,” he later wrote, “I took refuge in the form of the square.” Malevich painted many squares of different colours, but “Black Square” is the one people remember. Unveiled against the backdrop of the first world war and turmoil in Russia, Malevich’s “Black Square” marked a turningpoint in modern art.

馬列維奇後來寫道:“我拼命想把藝術從現實世界的沉重負擔中解放出來,而方塊這個形狀讓我得以解脱。”馬列維奇畫了許多不同顏色的方塊,但人們最記憶深刻的是《黑色方塊》。在第一次世界大戰和俄國動盪的背景下,馬列維奇的《黑色方塊》標誌着現代藝術的一個轉折點。

Malevich was a huge influence on his successors, especially the American abstract expressionists, but time has not been kind to “Black Square”, at least not physically. These days it is shrunken, cracked and slightly miscoloured. All the same, the challenge that it represented to artists is as powerful as ever.

馬列維奇對他的後繼者,尤其是美國抽象表現主義者產生了巨大的影響。但時間沒有饒過《黑色方塊》,至少在外觀上是如此。近日來,這幅畫開始皺縮、開裂和輕微掉色。儘管如此,它給藝術家們帶來的挑戰還是一如既往的強大。

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It was exactly a century after “Black Square”, in 2015, that Mr Kapoor secured the rights to make art using Vantablack, the blackest black ever created. It is not a paint so much as a dense coating of tiny “nanotubes”—“ Vanta” stands for “vertically aligned nanotube array”—which, instead of reflecting light, traps it almost completely. (It was developed as a material that might be useful in hiding satellites.) In a recent display in his studio, Mr Kapoor’s artworks seemed to have no shape or contours. A circle of Vantablack on the floor could be a rug-like coating or a bottomless hole; a bowl shape could be convex or concave. There was no way of telling.

2015年,《黑色方塊》恰好誕生了整整一個世紀,卡普爾在這一年獲得了使用“超級黑”創作藝術的權利,“超級黑”是有史以來最黑的顏料。與其説它是一種顏料,不如説是一層由微型“納米管”組成的緻密塗層(“Vanta”代表“垂直排列的納米管陣列”)。“超級黑”幾乎可以完全吸收光線,而不反射光。(它原是作為一種可能有助於隱形衞星的材料而研發的。)在他工作室最近的一次展覽中,卡普爾先生的作品似乎沒有形狀和輪廓。地板上的“超級黑”圓圈就像是一塊地毯,也像是無底洞;碗的形狀看起來像是凸起的,也像是凹陷的。我們無從判斷。

During the Renaissance, artists saw that paint could be used to portray objects in three dimensions. Vantablack seems to remove the object altogether. Speaking to Artforum, a magazine, Mr Kapoor once said: “Imagine walking into a room where you literally have no sense of the walls—where the walls are or that there are any walls at all. It’s not an empty dark room, but a space full of darkness.” For the viewer, as for the artist, these works are another step in the quest for the meaning of black.

文藝復興時期,藝術家們發現可以用繪畫來三維描繪物體。“超級黑”的使用似乎完全抹除了所描繪的物體。卡普爾曾在接受《藝術論壇》雜誌採訪時説:“想象一下,當走進一個房間,你根本感覺不到牆壁的存在,你感覺不到牆在哪,或者根本就沒有牆壁。這不是一個空蕩蕩的暗室,而是一個充滿黑暗的空間。”對於觀者和藝術家來説,這些作品是對黑色意義的又一次探索。

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slightly ['slaitli]

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adv. 些微地,苗條地

 
bowl [bəul]

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n. 碗,碗狀物,季後賽,圓形露天劇場
v.

 
abstract ['æbstrækt]

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n. 摘要,抽象的東西
adj. 抽象的,理論

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quest [kwest]

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n. 探索,尋求
v. 尋找,搜索

 
improvement [im'pru:vmənt]

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n. 改進,改善

 
refuge ['refju:dʒ]

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v. 庇護,避

 
revolution [.revə'lu:ʃən]

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renaissance [rə'neisəns]

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n. 文藝復興,再生

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array [ə'rei]

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n. 數組,(陳)排列,大批,一系列
vt.

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